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Production and methods

Level of production and manufacturing processes?

The current level of production of nanomaterials is significantly different at industrial level or in the laboratory. For a complete inventory of anthropic particles, consult the database www.nanowerk.com. Three types of manufacturing processes of nano-objects (physical, chemical and mechanical) are used. These objects are then processed and subsequently incorporated into a volume or on a surface. Each integration is characterized by the particle bonding force with the structure.

 The process of incorporation consists of three specific phases: the dispersion of pulverulent powders to form a colloidal solution, the functionalization of the particles to give them a specific property (hydrophilic, hydrophobic, adhesion, etc.) and prevent their agglomeration, and then the incorporation.

For example, to incorporate SiO2 in tires, gum is prepared in liquid phase and then injected into a mould. In the preparation phase, large quantities of powders are handled, the confinement of powders must be ensured.

At each stage, the powder's propensity to disperse is very variable:

  • maximum in air for a dry powder: the slightest air current or shock produces a plumes diffusion,
  • medium in a liquid medium: the aim is mostly to avoid leaks or discharges,
  • low or very low when integrated: depending on the type of structure in which the particles are incorporated.