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What happens to the nanoparticles when integrated into the organism?

The future of nanoparticles in the organism can be summed up in four stages (toxicokinetics):

  • deposit and absorption of nanoparticles by inhalation, skin contact or ingestion,
  • dispersion to sensitive organs by the epithelial, blood or nervous system tract,
  • defense reaction of the metabolism,
  • total or partial elimination by different mechanisms and in a certain dynamics.

Toxicokinetic figure in the case of inhalation.

Some nanoparticles could be able to cross biological barriers: nasal, alveolo-capillary, intestines, placenta, and blood brain (translocation process). Via the interstitial lung tissue, blood and lymph, they might reach various organs such as the liver, heart or spleen. They could also reach the brain through the nasal mucosa, via the olfactory nerve.  Finally, their accumulation and spread throughout the organism could play a role in the development of certain pathologies of the heart or central nervous system.