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Production and methods

Level of production and manufacturing processes?

The current level of production of nanomaterials is significantly different at industrial level or in the laboratory. For a complete inventory of anthropic particles, consult the database www.nanowerk.com. Three types of manufacturing processes of nano-objects (physical, chemical and mechanical) are used. These objects are then processed and subsequently incorporated into a volume or on a surface. Each integration is characterized by the particle bonding force with the structure.


Production reactor confinement.


Nanomil DTNM Workshop.


Sintering process.

Milling Micrometric powders (1 to 50 microns) from several alloys are milled down to a nanoscale size by agitation with tungsten or steel beads. Since 1998, INCO (USA) has produced 350 tons of Oxide Dispersion Strengthening (ODS), ZOZ (D) 600 Kg/day of a Cu-Zn welding material, APT/ANT (AUS) of ZnO nanoparticles for solar protections. Implemented in closed systems in dry phase, these processes involve high mechanical energy. The potential sources of contamination concern equipment leaks, a faulty filtration on the extractions or the recovery phases of materials.

Strong Deformations A strong deformation can refine the structure of a crystalline material (metal, ceramic) to obtain grains of a few tens of nanometers in size. This technique generally can improve toughness and ductility. The risk of exposure to nanoparticles is a priori zero.

Sintering With sintering techniques, massive pieces can be obtained from pulverulent materials (metal powders, ceramics semi-conductors, and organic). Some processes developed in laboratories are currently being transferred to industry, such as microwave sintering or flash sintering under a pulsed current (msec) of high intensity (104 to 6.104 A). The most important massive pieces may have diameters of 80 cm for a few centimeters of thickness. The preparation with handling phase is critical, the confinement of powders must be ensured.